HIV Oral Test | STD SG™
HIV Oral Test | STD SG™ @std_sg: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) oral test, Singapore. Private & confidential service.
Come to sunny Singapore to have your testing and treatment. Singapore Ministry of Health registered general practice (GP) clinic:
| SHIM CLINIC|
168 Bedok South Avenue 3 #01-473
Tel: (+65) 6446 7446
Fax: (+65) 6449 7446
24hr Answering Tel: (+65) 6333 5550
Web: HIV Oral Test | STD SG™
| Opening Hours |
Monday to Friday: 9 am to 3 pm, 7 pm to 11 pm
Saturday & Sunday: 7 pm to 11 pm
Public Holidays: Closed
Last registration: one hour before closing time.
Walk-in clinic. Appointments not required.
Bring NRIC, Work Pass or Passport for registration.
Table of Contents HIV rapid test (20 minutes to results) Two types are available:
Note: If the clinic attendance is only for the HIV rapid test, then consultation fees are not added.
References HIV is the abbreviation for the human immunodeficiency virus, which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
HIV symptoms which may present in acute HIV infection: These are nonspecific symptoms and can present with other infections; consequently, they are unreliable indicators of HIV infection.
Remember, there is no HIV cure.
HIV window period is the time from HIV infection until a HIV Test can detect any change. Within the HIV window period, the HIV Test would be negative. During this period, the HIV viral load is extremely high, thus making the person highly infectious.
References HIV Test
- 4 weeks after exposure, a negative 4th generation HIV ELISA Test "is very reassuring / highly likely to exclude HIV infection."
- 12 weeks after exposure, a negative 3rd generation HIV ELISA Test "would definitively exclude HIV infection."
HIV ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test generations:
References HIV PCR (polymerase chain reaction) NAT (nucleic acid test) HIV Risk (2009 figures)
- 1st generation: HIV-1 IgG antibody
- 2nd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG antibodies
- 3rd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies
- 4th generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies and HIV p24 antigen
Estimated HIV transmission risk per exposure for specific activities and events
|Activity ||Risk-per-exposure |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in high-income countries ||0.04% (1:2380) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in high-income countries ||0.08% (1:1234) |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in low-income countries ||0.38% (1:263) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in low-income countries ||0.30% (1:333) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner is asymptomatic ||0.07% (1:1428) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner has late-stage disease ||0.55% (1:180) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner unknown status ||0.27% (1:370) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner HIV positive ||0.82% (1:123) |
|Receptive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.18% (1:555) |
|Insertive anal sex, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.06% (1:1666) |
|Insertive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.04% (1:2500) |
|Receptive fellatio ||Estimates range from 0.00% to 0.04% (1:2500) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes at least two weeks antiretroviral therapy ||0.8% (1:125) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes combination therapy, viral load below 50 ||0.1% (1:1000) |
|Injecting drug use ||Estimates range from 0.63% (1:158) to 2.4% (1:41) |
|Needlestick injury, no other risk factors ||0.13% (1:769) |
|Blood transfusion with contaminated blood ||92.5% (9:10) |
Sources: vaginal sex;1 anal sex;2 fellatio;3 2 mother-to-child;4 other activities.5
- Boily MC et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis 9(2): 118-129, 2009
- Vittinghoff E et al. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology 150: 306-311, 1999
- Del Romero J et al. Evaluating the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected orogenital sex. AIDS 16(9): 1296-1297, 2002
- Townsend C et al. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000-2006. AIDS 22: 973-981, 2008
- Baggaley RF et al. Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion. AIDS 20: 805-812, 2006
- HIV & AIDS Information :: How transmission occurs - Estimated risk per exposure
HIV Risk (2005 figures)
Estimated per-act risk for acquisition of HIV, by exposure route*
*Estimates of risk for transmission from sexual exposures assume no condom use.
|Exposure route||Risk per 10,000|
to an infected source
|Needle-sharing injection-drug use||67||0.67|
|Receptive anal intercourse||50||0.5|
|Percutaneous needle stick||30||0.3|
|Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse||10||0.1|
|Insertive anal intercourse||6.5||0.065|
|Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse||5||0.05|
|Receptive oral intercourse†||1||0.01|
|Insertive oral intercourse†||0.5||0.005|
†Source refers to oral intercourse performed on a man.
HIV risk (2002 figures)
HIV Risk Statistics (chances of getting HIV)
|HIV Risk Factors ||HIV Transmission Probability |
|Needle stick injury3 ||1/300 |
|Receptive anal intercourse4 ||1/100 |
|Receptive vaginal intercourse5 ||1/1000 |
|Insertive vaginal intercourse4 ||1/2000 |
|Insertive anal intercourse4 ||1/2500 |
|Receptive fellatio with ejaculation4 ||1/2500 |
|Sharing needles6 ||1/150 |
HIV prevention / HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment can prevent you from getting an HIV infection, and turning HIV positive.
- Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, et al. A Case-Control Study of HIV Seroconversion in Health Care Workers after Percutaneous Exposure. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1485-1490.
- Katz MH, Gerberding JL. Management of occupational and nonoccupational postexposure HIV prophylaxis. Current Inf Dis Reports. 2002;4:543-549.
- Gerberding JL. Prophylaxis for Occupational Exposure to HIV. Ann Intern Med. 1996;6:497-501
- Vitinghoff E, Douglas J, Judon F, et al. Per-Contact Risk of Human Immunodificiency Virus Transmision between Male Sexual Partners. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:306-311.
- Peterman TA, Stoneburner RL, Allen JR, et al. Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission From Heterosexual Adults With Transfusion-Associated Infections. JAMA. 1988;259:55-58. [Erratum. JAMA. 1989;262:502]
- Kaplan EH, Heimer R. A Model-Based Estimate of HIV Infectivity via Needle Sharing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992;5:1116-1118.
Individuals are eligible for HIV PEP Treatment if all the following criteria are met:
Prompt antiviral therapy may reduce the risk of HIV transmission by as much as 80%.
- less than 72 hours has elapsed since exposure;
- the exposed individual is not known to be HIV infected;
- the person who is the source of exposure is HIV infected or has unknown HIV status;
- mucous membrane or non-intact skin was exposed to a potentially infectious body fluid;
For optimal efficacy, antiretroviral therapy should be started as soon as possible, ideally within 1 hour of exposure. So that you can remain HIV negative.
The medications and dosages are the same as those used for lifelong treatment of HIV patients. However, for HIV PEP treatment, it is taken for only a month.
References Drugs commonly used in HIV PEP: References TORCH
(of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.
Health Care and Speech Differences
Wed, 01 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | The ASHA Leader Online
I found the article “Hospital to Pay $70,000 to Patient Denied Interpreter” (February 2015) quite compelling. It particularly reminded me of an experience regarding the importance of effective communication for patients in hospitals, while my father was hospitalized in Florida last year. He has hearing loss and wears hearing aids, but did not require a sign language interpreter. My family and I experienced difficulty understanding crucial information regarding my father’s health from a doctor who had noticeable “speech difference.” (Source: The ASHA Leader Online)
Enrolment trends in a comprehensive HIV programme in rural north-central Nigeria: improved care indices, but declining quality of clinical data over time.
Tue, 31 Mar 2015 23:21:32 +0100 | Pathogens and Global Health
CONCLUSION: Expanded testing in a comprehensive HIV programme in rural Nigeria brought persons to care at earlier stages of illness. Yet, as clinical services expanded, data collection quality declined. The paradox of successful scaling up HIV services but deteriorating quality of data underscores the importance of data management training and quality improvement efforts.
Neurological complications of HIV infection in pre-HAART and HAART era: a retrospective study
Tue, 31 Mar 2015 17:36:37 +0100 | Journal of Neurology
We describe the outcome of HIV-infected patients followed at a single center for AIDS-related neurological syndromes in the 16 years following the introduction of HAART, and compare the findings with those in patients admitted up to 1996. We have conducted a retrospective study of patients with HIV infection or AIDS (based on WHO criteria and classified according to the 1993 CDC criteria) admitted during 20 years (January 1992 to March 2012) to the Infectious Diseases Unit of the University of Verona for the presence of focal or widespread CNS lesion on neuroimaging. Clinical history, CD4 cell count, HIV-RNA level, neurological examination, imaging, cerebrospinal fluid examination and eventual cerebral biopsy results were reviewed as well as the final neurological diagnosis and the treat...
Liberia: LCM, Citizens Dialogue On TB, HIV
Tue, 31 Mar 2015 14:57:25 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[NEWS] The Liberia Coordinating Mechanism (LCM) Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) in the country has concluded a two-day dialogue with citizens in River Cess County on TB and HIV prioritization. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Liberia: Tuberculosis Incident Rate On Increase in Liberia
Tue, 31 Mar 2015 14:50:39 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Tuberculosis
[FrontPageAfrica] Monrovia -While all attention has been on the outbreak of Ebola in Liberia, there is increase in other diseases especially in rural counties in the country. To identify priorities for Liberia to effectively respond to TB and HIV in the next three years, the people of River Cess County have concluded a two-day dialogue, as part of an ongoing nationwide consultation organized by the Liberia Coordinating Mechanism (LCM) of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) in the country, with support from (Source: AllAfrica News: Tuberculosis)
National Public Heath Week is April 6-12, 2015: National Themes
Tue, 31 Mar 2015 14:20:26 +0100 | Dragonfly
This report discusses consumption and the change for this particular study over a period of five years (2007 to 2012).
Uganda: AIDS Commission Launches Resource Center
Tue, 31 Mar 2015 14:07:19 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Independent (Kampala)] Despite all government interventions into averting HIV/AIDS in the country, Uganda is still rated among the top three countries in Africa with the highest prevalence whereby on a daily basis, close to 380 acquire the disease. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tanzania: How New Initiative Speeds Up HIV/Aids Battle in Two Regions
Tue, 31 Mar 2015 13:20:32 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Daily News] WAR against HIV/AIDS is waged worldwide with different stakeholders as well as unequal levels of intervention. Ariel Glaser Pediatric AIDS Health Initiative (AGPAHI) is one of players and Staff Writer DEUS NGOWI who was in the Lake Zone recently writes in regard to efforts undertaken by the nongovernmental organisation... (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya court urges change to law criminalizing women who pass HIV to baby
Tue, 31 Mar 2015 12:45:18 +0100 | Reuters: Health
NAIROBI (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Human rights groups have welcomed moves to change a Kenyan law passed to curb the spread of HIV/AIDS, which criminalizes pregnant women who pass HIV/AIDS to their babies, saying it discouraged people from finding out their status. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Kenya: HIV-Aids Stigma 'High' in the Workplace
Tue, 31 Mar 2015 11:11:11 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[The Star] People living with HIV and Aids are facing increasing hostility in the public and private sectors. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)